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學術視點

鄖文聚:耕地破壞鑒定向何處發力

發(fa)布日期:2021-04-28瀏覽次數:信息來源:土地(di)科學與(yu)技術學院(yuan)

河南、湖(hu)北兩省分別出臺(tai)的耕(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞鑒(jian)定(ding)(ding)技(ji)術(shu)規范被媒(mei)體報(bao)道(dao)后(hou),一段時間以(yi)來,“耕(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞如(ru)何鑒(jian)定(ding)(ding)”“耕(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞問(wen)題如(ru)何破(po)(po)解和(he)(he)防范”等(deng)話題引起廣泛關注。事實上,司(si)法(fa)部(bu)已有《耕(geng)地(di)(di)和(he)(he)林地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞司(si)法(fa)鑒(jian)定(ding)(ding)技(ji)術(shu)規范》;自(zi)然資源部(bu)和(he)(he)農業(ye)農村(cun)部(bu)也在(zai)依據職責分工,研(yan)究制定(ding)(ding)相關行(xing)業(ye)規范。在(zai)多(duo)年來參與耕(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞案(an)例現(xian)場勘查(cha)和(he)(he)分析研(yan)究的實踐中,筆者萌生了以(yi)下(xia)幾點原則(ze)性思(si)考(kao):

耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)是(shi)對(dui)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)資源(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)實(shi)(shi)質性傷(shang)害,導致耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)功能(neng)永久性或難(nan)(nan)以(yi)(yi)逆(ni)轉的(de)(de)(de)損失。從(cong)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)性質上(shang)劃分(fen),耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)可以(yi)(yi)區分(fen)為物理(li)性破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)、化(hua)學(xue)性破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)和(he)(he)生物性破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)三類(lei)。因此,在耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)鑒(jian)定(ding)實(shi)(shi)踐中,就要分(fen)類(lei)細化(hua)并(bing)制定(ding)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)程度(du)分(fen)級(ji)標(biao)準。如,司法部頒布的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)(ji)(ji)術(shu)規(gui)(gui)范(fan)就明(ming)確了(le)“嚴重(zhong)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)”和(he)(he)“破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)”兩個尺度(du)。湖北的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)(ji)(ji)術(shu)規(gui)(gui)范(fan)將耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)明(ming)確為“一(yi)般破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)”和(he)(he)“嚴重(zhong)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)”兩級(ji)。河南的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)(ji)(ji)術(shu)規(gui)(gui)范(fan)則(ze)明(ming)確為“一(yi)級(ji)”“二級(ji)”和(he)(he)“三級(ji)”,其中三級(ji)為嚴重(zhong)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)。這些(xie)技(ji)(ji)(ji)術(shu)規(gui)(gui)范(fan)對(dui)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)的(de)(de)(de)鑒(jian)定(ding),都采取了(le)關(guan)鍵因子法,盡可能(neng)地(di)(di)使(shi)(shi)用量化(hua)了(le)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)程度(du)的(de)(de)(de)區分(fen),具(ju)有可操作性,也一(yi)定(ding)程度(du)上(shang)縮(suo)小了(le)規(gui)(gui)范(fan)使(shi)(shi)用者的(de)(de)(de)自由裁量權。從(cong)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)資源(yuan)管理(li)角度(du)出發,重(zhong)點關(guan)切的(de)(de)(de)應是(shi)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破(po)(po)壞(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)(huai)導致耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)滅失或耕(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)功能(neng)(包括自然生態功能(neng))難(nan)(nan)以(yi)(yi)逆(ni)轉的(de)(de)(de)惡(e)化(hua)。從(cong)已經出臺的(de)(de)(de)幾份(fen)技(ji)(ji)(ji)術(shu)規(gui)(gui)范(fan)來看,這一(yi)問題還沒有得到(dao)充分(fen)的(de)(de)(de)解決。

耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞會造(zao)成(cheng)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)利用(yong)的嚴重障礙,導(dao)致耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)能力(li)(li)的永久性(xing)喪失或難以恢復(fu)的喪失。目(mu)(mu)前,我(wo)們對(dui)(dui)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)能力(li)(li)的關心依然集(ji)中在單產(chan)(chan)的高低上(shang),并沒有很(hen)好地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)顧及因耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞引發的農(nong)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)品(pin)質(zhi)、風(feng)味(wei)變化。隨著我(wo)國(guo)高質(zhi)量(liang)發展的深化,消費者(zhe)更加注(zhu)重農(nong)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)的品(pin)質(zhi)和風(feng)味(wei),耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞鑒定(ding)(ding)必然更多(duo)關注(zhu)到(dao)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞問題(ti)中,那些對(dui)(dui)農(nong)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)品(pin)質(zhi)有決定(ding)(ding)性(xing)作用(yong)的方面,如耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)土(tu)壤(rang)微生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物的變化。而這方面的科學研究(jiu)和司法(fa)鑒定(ding)(ding)實踐還是(shi)(shi)很(hen)不足的。近20年(nian)來(lai),全世界的科學家都已經(jing)注(zhu)意(yi)到(dao)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)土(tu)壤(rang)健康的關鍵變量(liang)是(shi)(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物多(duo)樣性(xing),認為耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)活力(li)(li)的根本源(yuan)泉正在于此(ci)。因此(ci),對(dui)(dui)于耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞鑒定(ding)(ding),僅僅關注(zhu)物理(li)學、化學指標的重大變化是(shi)(shi)不夠的,需要將更多(duo)目(mu)(mu)光放到(dao)對(dui)(dui)土(tu)壤(rang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物多(duo)樣性(xing)及其對(dui)(dui)農(nong)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)品(pin)質(zhi)的影響上(shang)來(lai)。

耕(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破壞造成了耕(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)系統生態環境的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)根本性惡(e)化(hua)(hua),超出了耕(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)資(zi)源和(he)耕(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)利(li)用環境自(zi)然(ran)恢復或人工(gong)輔助(zhu)恢復的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)閾(yu)值。耕(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)污染是(shi)耕(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破壞的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)個重(zhong)要類型,工(gong)礦廢(fei)棄物和(he)生活垃圾的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)堆放、填(tian)埋不當是(shi)比(bi)較普遍的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)種耕(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)破壞行(xing)為。而(er)灌溉(gai)水質、農藥化(hua)(hua)肥除草劑使用不當,也會逐步積(ji)累耕(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)環境問題。從已經(jing)頒布的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)幾個技術規范來(lai)看,這方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)規定還(huan)比(bi)較簡單(dan)、薄弱,亟待充(chong)實完(wan)善。相信隨著三大污染攻堅戰的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)深入,一(yi)些地(di)(di)方相對(dui)比(bi)較嚴重(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)耕(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)水土環境問題一(yi)定能夠得(de)到解(jie)決(jue)。而(er)這個過(guo)程應該置于嚴格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)科(ke)學觀(guan)測(ce)監督之下進行(xing)。

耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞(huai)入(ru)罪(zui)入(ru)刑(xing)是為(wei)了懲(cheng)惡揚(yang)善、止紛(fen)定(ding)爭,我國生態(tai)文(wen)明建設迫(po)切需要(yao)大力弘揚(yang)耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)保(bao)護(hu)領(ling)域的(de)(de)法(fa)律(lv)正義(yi)。《刑(xing)法(fa)》第(di)三百四十二條“非法(fa)占(zhan)用農用地(di)(di)(di)罪(zui)”是開(kai)展耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞(huai)鑒(jian)定(ding)工作的(de)(de)法(fa)律(lv)基礎。《關于國土(tu)資源(yuan)行政(zheng)主(zhu)管(guan)部門移送(song)涉嫌國土(tu)資源(yuan)犯罪(zui)案件(jian)的(de)(de)若干(gan)意(yi)見》(國土(tu)資發(fa)〔2008〕03號)第(di)二條第(di)三款規(gui)定(ding),耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞(huai)鑒(jian)定(ding)主(zhu)體為(wei)“市(shi)(地(di)(di)(di))級或(huo)者省(sheng)級國土(tu)資源(yuan)行政(zheng)主(zhu)管(guan)部門”。從現行法(fa)規(gui)和標準來看,并(bing)沒(mei)有(you)規(gui)定(ding)可(ke)以(yi)(yi)(yi)接(jie)受委托承擔耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞(huai)鑒(jian)定(ding)的(de)(de)機構及其資質(zhi),也(ye)沒(mei)有(you)規(gui)定(ding)具備(bei)什么樣資格的(de)(de)自然人(ren)可(ke)以(yi)(yi)(yi)接(jie)受委托成(cheng)為(wei)耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞(huai)鑒(jian)定(ding)專家組的(de)(de)成(cheng)員。這是導致耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)破(po)壞(huai)鑒(jian)定(ding)實踐(jian)受阻的(de)(de)一個重要(yao)原因,亟(ji)須加(jia)以(yi)(yi)(yi)完善。

最(zui)嚴(yan)格的耕(geng)(geng)地(di)保護制度,只有(you)建立(li)在最(zui)嚴(yan)密的法(fa)治(zhi)體系上,才能落在實(shi)處。承擔耕(geng)(geng)地(di)保護監(jian)督第一責(ze)任的自然資源部(bu)門責(ze)無(wu)旁貸,應該加緊總結(jie)各地(di)實(shi)踐,加快(kuai)完善耕(geng)(geng)地(di)破壞鑒定技術保障基礎工作(zuo),助力耕(geng)(geng)地(di)破壞司法(fa)鑒定盡快(kuai)成(cheng)為耕(geng)(geng)地(di)保護的一把利劍。


(作者:鄖文聚,自然資源部國土整治中心副主任、中國農業大學土地科學與技術學院兼職教授。全文刊發于2021年4月1日《中國自然資源報》)

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